RHINOPLASTY (NOSE RESHAPING)
Medical Definition of Nose job. Nose job: Slang for plastic surgery on the nose, known medically as a rhinoplasty. This is a facial cosmetic procedure, often performed to enhance the appearance of the nose. ... Rhinoplasty is also frequently performed to repair nasal fractures. Rhinoplasty: Plastic surgery on the nose, known familiarly as a nose job. Rhinoplasty is a facial cosmetic procedure that is usually performed to enhance the appearance of the nose. During this type of rhinoplasty, the nasal cartilage and bones are modified, or tissue is added. Rhinoplasty is also performed to repair nasal fractures and other structural problems. In these cases, the goal is to restore preinjury appearance or to create a normal appearance. Rhinoplasty , commonly known as a nose job, is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form, restoring the functions, and aesthetically enhancing the nose by resolving nasal trauma(blunt, penetrating, blast), congenital defect, respiratory impediment, or a failed primary rhinoplasty. Most patients ask to remove a bump, narrow nostril width, change the angle between the nose and the mouth, as well as correct injuries, birth defects, or other problems that affect breathing, such as deviated nasal septum or a sinus condition. In the surgeries—closed rhinoplasty and open rhinoplasty—an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist), a maxillofacial surgeon (jaw, face, and neck specialist), or a plastic surgeon creates a functional, aesthetic, and facially proportionate nose by separating the nasal skin and the soft tissues from the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework, correcting them as required for form and function, suturing the incisions, using tissue glue and applying either a package or a stent, or both, to immobilize the corrected nose to ensure the proper healing of the surgical incision.
THE STRUCTURES OF THE NOSE
Nasal anatomy: The procerus muscle (musculus procerus, pyramidalis nasi, depressor glabellae).
For plastic surgical correction, the structural anatomy of the nose comprehends:
A. the nasal soft tissues
B. the aesthetic subunits and segments
C. the blood supply arteries and veins
D. the nasal lymphatic system
E. the facial and nasal nerves
F. the nasal bones
G. the nasal cartilages.
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THE EXTERNAL NOSE
External nasal anatomy: The form of the nasal subunits—the dorsum, the sidewalls, the lobule, the soft triangles, the alae, and the columella—are configured differently, according to the race and the ethnic group of the patient, thus the nasal physiognomies denominated as: African, platyrrhine (flat, wide nose); Asiatic, subplatyrrhine (low, wide nose); Caucasian, leptorrhine (narrow nose); and Hispanic, paraleptorrhine (narrow-sided nose). The respective external valve of each nose is variably dependent upon the size, shape, and strength of the lower lateral cartilage.
Internal nasal anatomy: In the midline of the nose, the septum is a composite (osseo-cartilaginous) structure that divides the nose into two (2) similar halves. The lateral nasal wall and the paranasal sinuses, the superior concha, the middle concha, and the inferior concha, form the corresponding passages, the superior meatus, the middle meatus, and the inferior meatus, on the lateral nasal wall. The superior meatus is the drainage area for the posterior ethmoid bone cells and the sphenoid sinus; the middle meatus provides drainage for the anterior ethmoid sinuses and for the maxillary and frontal sinuses; and the inferior meatus provides drainage for the nasolacrimal duct.
The internal nasal valve comprises the area bounded by the upper lateral-cartilage, the septum, the nasal floor, and the anterior head of the inferior turbinate. In the narrow (leptorrhine) nose, this is the narrowest portion of the nasal airway. Generally, this area requires an angle greater than 15 degrees for unobstructed breathing; for the correction of such narrowness, the width of the nasal valve can be increased with spreader grafts and flaring sutures.
Rhinoplasty. Nasal anatomy: The philtrum.
The surgical management of nasal defects and deformities divides the nose into six (6) anatomic subunits: (i) the dorsum, (ii) the sidewalls (paired), (iii) the hemilobules (paired), (iv) the soft triangles (paired), (v) the alae (paired), and (vi) the columella. Surgical correction and reconstruction comprehend the entire anatomic subunit affected by the defect (wound) or deformity, thus, the entire subunit is corrected, especially when the resection (cutting) of the defect encompasses more than 50 per cent of the subunit. Aesthetically, the nose—from the nasion (the midpoint of the nasofrontal junction) to the columella-labial junction—ideally occupies one-third of the vertical dimension of the person’s face; and, from ala to ala, it ideally should occupy one-fifth of the horizontal dimension of the person's face.
The nasofrontal angle, between the frontal bone and the nasion usually is 120 degrees; the nasofrontal angle is more acute in the male face than in the female face. The nasofacial angle, the slope of the nose relative to the plane of the face, is approximately 30–40 degrees. The nasolabial angle, the slope between the columella and the philtrum, is approximately 90–95 degrees in the male face, and approximately 100–105 degrees in the female face. Therefore, when observing the nose in profile, the normal show of the columella (the height of the visible nasal aperture) is 2 mm; and the dorsum should be rectilinear (straight). When observed from below (worm’s-eye view), the alar base configures an isosceles triangle, with its apex at the infra-tip lobule, immediately beneath the tip of the nose. The facially proportionate projection of the nasal tip (the distance of the nose’s tip from the face) is determined with the Goode Method, wherein the projection of the nasal tip should be 55–60 per cent of the distance between the nasion (nasofrontal junction) and the tip-defining point. A columellar double break might be present, marking the transition between the intermediate crus of the lower-lateral cartilage and the medial crus.
The Goode Method determines the extension of the nose from the facial surface by comprehending the distance from the alar groove to the tip of the nose, and then relating that measurement (of nasal-tip projection) to the length of the nasal dorsum. The nasal projection measurement is obtained by delineating a right triangle with lines parting from the nasion (nasofrontal juncture) to the alar–facial–groove. Then, a second, perpendicular delineation, that traverses the tip-defining point, establishes the ratio of projection of the nasal tip; hence, the range of 0.55:1 to 0.60:1, is the ideal nasal-tip-to-nasal-length projection
TYPES OF RHINOPLASTY – PRIMARY AND SECONDARY
In plastic surgical praxis, the term primary rhinoplasty denotes an initial (first-time) reconstructive, functional, or aesthetic corrective procedure. The term secondary rhinoplastydenotes the revision of a failed rhinoplasty, an occurrence in 5–20 per cent of rhinoplasty operations, hence a revision rhinoplasty. The corrections usual to secondary rhinoplasty include the cosmetic reshaping of the nose because of a functional breathing deficit from an over aggressive rhinoplasty, asymmetry, deviated or crooked nose, areas of collapses, hanging columella, pinched tip, scooped nose and more. Although most revision rhinoplasty procedures are "open approach", such a correction is more technically complicated, usually because the nasal support structures either were deformed or destroyed in the primary rhinoplasty; thus the surgeon must re-create the nasal support with cartilage grafts harvested either from the ear (auricular cartilage graft) or from the rib cage (costal cartilage graft).
SURGICAL ANATOMY FOR NASAL RECONSTRUCTION
The human nose is a sensory organ that is structurally composed of three types of tissue: (i) an osseo-cartilaginous support framework (nasal skeleton), (ii) a mucous membrane lining, and (iii) an external skin. The anatomic topography of the human nose is a graceful blend of convexities, curves, and depressions, the contours of which show the underlying shape of the nasal skeleton. Hence, these anatomic characteristics permit dividing the nose into nasal subunits: (i) the midline (ii) the nose-tip, (iii) the dorsum, (iv) the soft triangles, (v) the alar lobules, and (vi) the lateral walls. Surgically, the borders of the nasal subunits are ideal locations for the scars, whereby is produced a superior aesthetic outcome, a corrected nose with corresponding skin colors and skin textures
Nasal skeleton: Therefore, the successful rhinoplastic outcome depends entirely upon the respective maintenance or restoration of the anatomic integrity of the nasal skeleton, which comprises (a) the nasal bones and the ascending processes of the maxilla in the upper third; (b) the paired upper-lateral cartilages in the middle third; and (c) the lower-lateral, alar cartilages in the lower third. Hence, managing the surgical reconstruction of a damaged, defective, or deformed nose, requires that the plastic surgeon manipulate three (3) anatomic layers:
1. the osseo-cartilagenous framework – The upper lateral cartilages that are tightly attached to the (rear) caudal edge of the nasal bonesand the nasal septum; said attachment suspends them above the nasal cavity. The paired alar cartilages configure a tripod-shaped union that supports the lower third of the nose. The paired medial crura conform the central-leg of the tripod, which is attached to the anterior nasal spine and septum, in the midline. The lateral crura compose the second-leg and the third-leg of the tripod, and are attached to the (pear-shaped) pyriform aperture, the nasal-cavity opening at the front of the skull. The dome of the nostrils defines the apex of the alar cartilage, which supports the nasal tip, and is responsible for the light reflex of the tip.
2. the nasal lining – A thin layer of vascular mucosa that adheres tightly to the deep surface of the bones and the cartilages of the nose. Said dense adherence to the nasal interior limits the mobility of the mucosa, consequently, only the smallest of mucosal defects (< 5 mm) can be sutured primarily.
3. the nasal skin – A tight envelope that proceeds inferiorly from the glabella (the smooth prominence between the eyebrows), which then becomes thinner and progressively inelastic (less distensible). The skin of the mid-third of the nose covers the cartilaginous dorsum and the upper lateral cartilages and is relatively elastic, but, at the (far) distal-third of the nose, the skin adheres tightly to the alar cartilages, and is little distensible. The skin and the underlying soft tissues of the alar lobule form a semi-rigid anatomic unit that maintains the graceful curve of the alar rim, and the patency (openness) of the nostrils (anterior nares). To preserve this nasal shape and patency, the replacement of the alar lobule must include a supporting cartilage graft—despite the alar lobule not originally containing cartilage; because of its many sebaceous glands, the nasal skin usually is of a smooth (oiled) texture. Moreover, regarding scarrification, when compared to the skin of other facial areas, the skin of the nose generates fine-line scars that usually are inconspicuous, which allows the surgeon to strategically hide the surgical scars.